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Help:Language/be

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Слоўнік апісвае мовы, і ў гэтым тэксце даецца вызначэнне мовы згодна з правіламі OmegaWiki. У OmegaWiki паняцце мовы асноўваецца на стандарце ISO-639-3/bel, з пэўнымі змяненнямі. У базе даных ёсць табліца Мова (language).

Табліца Мова ў базе даных[edit]

Мова (Language), табліца ў базе даных, якая ўтрымлівае мовы, для якіх дазволена дадаваць Выразы. Без наяўнасці складніку ў гэтай табліцы, немагчыма дадаць слова для якіх-колечы мовы ці дыялекту. Дадаванне Мовы адрозніваецца ад дадавання шаблонаў-Вавілонаў або Парталаў. Мову дазволена дадаваць толькі Бюракратам.

Паняцце мовы ў OmegaWiki[edit]

Каталог OmegaWiki асноўваецца на Выразах, якія з'яўляюцца тэкстамі, пазначанымі кодам мовы (падрабязнасці бач у Выраз).

Спіс моўных кодаў OmegaWiki у аснове выводзіцца з стандарту ISO 639-3, у якім апісаныя 7602 складнікі (дата?). Гэта не тое самае, што коды праектаў, якімі карыстаецца MediaWiki. Стандартам ISO 639-3 распараджаецца інстытут SIL, асноўваючыся на сваім уласным рэсурсе Этналог і на спісе Лінгвіст.

Scope of identifiers[edit]

SIL has this to say about the scope of language identifiers for individual languages:

"There is no one definition of "language" that is agreed upon by all and appropriate for all purposes. As a result, there can be disagreement, even among speakers or linguistic experts, as to whether two varieties represent dialects of a single language or two distinct languages. For this part of ISO 639, judgments regarding when two varieties are considered to be the same or different languages are based on a number of factors, including linguistic similarity, intelligibility, a common literature, the views of speakers concerning the relationship between language and identity, and other factors."

The ISO 639-3 standard also contains codes for macrolanguages, that is:

"...clusters of closely-related language varieties that, based on the criteria discussed above, can be considered distinct individual languages, yet in certain usage contexts a single language identity for all is needed."

Examples of macrolanguages registered in 639-3 are "zho" (Chinese), which covers 13 Chinese languages, and "ara" (Arabic), which covers 29 Arabic languages.

The ISO 639-3 standard explicitly declines to encode dialects, where "...the term dialect is used as in the field of linguistics where it simply identifies any sub-variety of a language such as might be based on geographic region, age, gender, social class, time period, or the like." Thus it has one language code "eng" (English) which covers usage in the UK, USA, and some 104 other countries, including dozens of dialects from Cockney to Black English.

However, OmegaWiki finds it important to record distinctions between some local dialects. For example, it has separate language codes for "English", "English (United Kingdom)", and "English (United States)". Decisions to distinguish dialects in OmegaWiki by adding new language codes are made by the project leadership on a case-by-case basis.

Future prospects[edit]

OmegaWiki intends to transition to ISO 639-6 as its list for linguistic entities. ISO 639-6's goal is to have codes for "comprehensive coverage of language variation". Presumably this would include codes for everything registered in ISO 639-3, and also dialects and scripts which are outside ISO 639-3's scope. ISO 639-6 is a draft as of June, 2007, and thus probably has months, maybe years of work before it becomes a final standard.

Мова, пісьмо і правапіс[edit]

Палетак вызначэння моўных кодаў стандарту ISO 639-3 улучае як вуснае выражэнне ("зразумеласць"), так і пісьмовае выражэнне ("літаратура") мовы. Абодва аспекты аб'ядноўваюцца адным моўным кодам. З іншага боку, фундаментальны элемент OmegaWiki, то бо Выраз, датычыць пісанага, не выказванага, тэксту. Бываюць акалічнасці, у якіх такое адрозненне важкае.

The set of written marks, or graphemes, in which a language is written is known as a script. Multiple languages can be expressed using one script. For instance, the languages English and French are both written in the Latin script. However, some languages are written in multiple scripts. For instance, "azb" (South Azerbaijani) is written in Arabo-Persian script, Roman-based script and Cyrillic script. Logically, OmegaWiki will eventually contain Expressions of South Azerbaijani text in each of these scripts, presumably with the same Language code. ISO15924 defines four-letter codes for many scripts.

Scripts change over time. For instance, both Japanese and Chinese have reformed their standard character forms in the 1940's. Thus there are some words in both languages which had one Expression before the reform, and a different Expression after the reform, both linked to the same DefinedMeaning. This has similar consequences to OmegaWiki as historical spellings of English words.

Orthography is the set of rules for expressing a certain language in written form, including the choice of script and how that script is used. Orthography changes over time. For instance, in 1996 Germany changed the rules for writing German.

Languages which are not written[edit]

Some languages, such as "ase" American Sign Language are neither spoken nor written. Although OmegaWiki is a dictionary of written expression, it is a goal eventually to catalog sign languages as well. Thus, some non-written languages are in scope for OmegaWiki.

Sutton SignWriting script provides a way to record sign languages in writing. However, Sutton SignWriting is not yet encoded in Unicode, so it is technically difficult to record it in the database. ISO 639-3 does have language codes for multiple sign languages.

Details of OmegaWiki's use of ISO-639-3[edit]

OmegaWiki will make use of the ISO-639-3 qaa through qtz codes that are reserved for local use that is possible within the standard for specific information. This helps us deal with expressions that have a "grammar" but are not necessarily a language used for general communication. ISO 639-3 says these codes are for "cases in which there is no suitable existing code".

For chemical codes like H2O we will use the mul or zxx code; this is a code for stuff that is not language specific. ISO 639-3 defines "mul" as indicating "many languages are used and it is not practical to specify all the appropriate language codes". ISO 639-3 defines "zxx" as for "a situation in which a language identifier is required by system definition, but the item being described does not actually contain linguistic content."

List of languages in use on OmegaWiki[edit]

  • Editable languages is a page with a list of language names. It appears to be automatically updated every few days. The list takes the form of a link to a portal for the language name's ISO 639-3 3-letter code, and a link to the DefinedMeaning of the Expression for the name of that language in that language. However, the list is incomplete; for instance, it doesn't list English (United Kingdom) or English (United States).
  • Omegawiki.org's statistics for "Number of Expressions per language" show a list of languages actually used in OmegaWiki, including English (United Kingdom) and English (United States).