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Swadesh list for Lombard

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Some diachronics: Plural nouns and adjectives[edit]

Feminine[edit]

In Lombard tongue, feminine plural is generally derived from Latin first declination accusative -as; some concrete realisations are:

  • -as>-a
  • -as>-es>-e
  • -as>-es>-ei>-i
  • -as>-es>-ei>-i> <math>\emptyset</math>

For this reason, an etymological -s (like in French) could be added to feminine plural words provided that: 1) the general lines of a Lombard koiné have been drawn 2) written tongue gets a little bit stronger

Masculine[edit]

On the contrary, masculine plural is generally derived from Latin second declination nominative -i; this desinence eventually drops or gives rise to palatalisation or metaphonesis; some concrete realisations are:

  • -li>-lj>-gl>-j
  • -ni>nj>-gn
  • -ti>tj>-cc
  • Metaphonesis (in regression) : orti>öört;
  • Neutralisation: -i> <math>\emptyset</math>

References[edit]

  • G.Hull: the linguistic unity of Northern Italy and Rhaetia
  • E.Banfi, G.Bonfadini, P.Cordin, M.Iliescu: Italia Settentrionale: Crocevia di idiomi Romanzi, Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Trent 21-23 Ottobre 1993 Niemayer, Tübingen, 1995

Draft for a Swadesh list for Lombard[edit]

Bressà (thanks to Ninonino from English Wikipedia) column: please keep into account that ortography is peculiar, and needs to be renormalised: s means always /s/ and z /z/. Final c means /k/. Finall cc mean /tS/. The complete list will be normalised.

  • The language of this list is being standardised, according to a relevant discussion at Lombard wikipedia (link coming soon). According to this policy of wikimedia, this standardisation will be preliminarly published as a scientific paper and then implemented here.
  • La lengua da chesta lista (e di paroll Lumbaart al OmegaWiki) a l'è drée a vess standardizada, in acordi a una descüssiun relevanta a la wikipedia Lumbarda (ul liamm al è drée rivá). In acordi a

chesta pulítega da la wikimedia, chesta standardizazziun la sarà d'abord püblegada coma palpée sientífegh e pöö implementada chí.


English Bressà
(needs normalising ortography;
some words to be checked)
Bergamàsch Western Koiné Pus·cjavin Koiné
1 I mi
2 thou (singular) ti
3 he lüü
4 we nóter nóter nümm, nünch,nüòltar
5 you (plural) vóter óter vuu, vüü, viòltar
6 they lùr lur luur
7 this chèsto chèst cheest
8 that chèl chèl chel
9 here ché ché chí, chilò
10 there , ilò
11 who chi chi chi
12 what chè se, cósa sa, cusa, cussa
13 where endóe ‘ndo indúe
14 when quando quand quaand, cura ca
15 how cóme cóme cuma
16 not mía mia mia
17 all töt (sing), töcc (pl.) töt (sing), töcc (pl.) tütt (sing), tücc (pl.)
18 many tacc tace taant, un bell puu da
19 some en quat ergü, ü quach vargün
20 few póc póch pòcch
21 other óter óter (m.sing.plur), ótra (f.sing.), ótre (f.plur) òolt (m.sing.pl.), oltra (f.sing), oltri (f.plur)
22 one giü (m.), giöna (f.) ü (m.), öna (f.) vün, vöna (f.)
23 two du (m.), (f.) du (m.), (f.) düü (m.) (f.)
24 three tré (m.), trè (f.) tri (m.), trè (f.) trii (m.) trè (f.)
25 four quàter quàter quàtar, quatru
26 five sic sich ciinch
27 big grant, gròs gròss, grand gross, graant
28 long lónc lóngh luungh
29 wide larc làrgh, grand laargh, graant
30 thick spès spèss, gròss spèss, gròss
31 heavy gréf de pis da pees, pesaant
32 small picinì, pesèn pissèn piscin, ziich
33 short cürt cört, cörta cüürt, cürta
34 narrow strèt strécc, strégia strécc, strégia
35 thin sitìl sitìl, ligér sutiil, lisgée
36 woman fómna fómna, dòna fómna, dòna
37 man (adult male) òm òm òmm
38 man (human being) òm òm òmm
39 child (a youth) pipì, s·cèt s-cet/s-ceta nani, nan, fiöö, tuus, matel (m.)/nana, fiöla tusa matèla (f.)
40 wife moér, spúza spusa, moér spusa, miée
41 husband òm òm, marìt omm, marii
42 mother màder, máma mama mama
43 father pàder, papà, bubà tata papà
44 animal animàl bès-cia bès-cja
45 fish pès pèss pèss
46 bird ozèl osèl usell
47 dog (a domestic animal) can
48 louse piöcc piöcc piöcc
49 snake bis béssa, serpènt béssa, serpeent
50 worm vérem èrem
51 tree pjànta pianta pianta, àrbur
52 forest bósc bósch buusch
53 stick (of wood) bastù bastù, tarèl bastun,tarell
54 fruit fröta fröt frütt
55 seed somésa soméssa sumenza
56 leaf fòia fòia föja
57 root raìs raìs ariis,arisa
58 bark (of tree) scórsa rösca rüsca
59 flower fjùr fiùr fiuur, fluur
60 grass èrba èrba èrba
61 rope córda córda corda
62 skin (of a person) pèl pèl pèll
63 meat (as in flesh) càrne càren carna
64 blood sanc sangh saangh
65 bone òs òss òss
66 fat (n.) gras grass grass
67 egg öf öv ööf
68 horn córen córen còrnu, còran
69 tail cùa cùa cúa
70 feather (rather not down) pèna pèna, piöma pèna, piüma, plüma
71 hair caèl cheèi cavej
72 head coo, cuu
73 ear orècia orègia urègja
74 eye öcc ögg öcc
75 nose nas nas naas
76 mouth bóca bóca buca
77 tooth (rather not molar) dét dét deent
78 tongue lèngua lèngua, lapa léngua
79 fingernail öngia öngia ungja
80 foot , pée
81 leg gamba gamba gamba
82 knee zönöcc zenöcc genöcc
83 hand man
84 wing àla sèa ala,ara
85 belly pànsa pansa panza
86 guts bödèle bödèi büdej
87 neck còl còl coll
88 back schéna dòss, schéna doss, s·cèna
89 breast stòmec pècc, tèta pècc, tèta
90 heart cör cör cöör
91 liver figàt fìdegh fídegh
92 to drink béer biv beef
93 to eat majà mangiá mangjá
94 to bite piá pïá
95 to suck ciüciá tetá, ciciá tetá sücjá
96 to spit spüdá spüdá spüdá, spüá
97 to vomit bötá sö dá de stòmegh dá da stòmegh, trá sü
98 to blow (as wind) sopjá bufá bufá
99 to breathe respirá fiadá fiadá
100 to laugh ríder grigná grigná, riid
101 to see éder vèd vidé
102 to hear sènter sènt sentí
103 to know (a fact) saì saì savé
104 to think pensá pensá pensá
105 to smell (sense odor) snazá usmá usmá
106 to fear ìga póra ìga póra vegh pagüra
107 to sleep dórmer durmì durmì
108 to live scampà, vìver vií viif
109 to die mörer mör murí
110 to kill copá copá cupá
111 to fight combáter lotá lütá
112 to hunt (transitive) cassá cassá cassá
113 to hit picá picá picá
114 to cut tajá teá tajá
115 to split spartéser spartì spartì
116 to stab (or stick) scortelá pögnalá pügnalá
117 to scratch (an itch) gratá gratá, sgrafá gratá, sgrafá
118 to dig scaá scaá scavá
119 to swim ugá nodá nudá
120 to fly (v.) ulá sgulá gurá
121 to walk caminá caminá caminá
122 to come vègner vègn vegní
123 to lie (as on one's side) bötás zó slongás zó slungass gjò
124 to sit sentás zó sentás setass gjò
125 to stand stá 'n pé saltá ‘mpé saltá in pé
126 to turn (change direction) girá, ultá ultá vultá
127 to fall (as in drop) burlá zó borlá zò, crodá burlá gjò
128 to give
129 to hold (in one's hand) tègner sàlt tègn teegn,tegní
130 to squeeze schisá ströcá schiscjá
131 to rub frigá, sgürá sgürá sgurá
132 to wash laá laá lavá
133 to wipe sügá, snetá sügá / netá sügá / netá
134 to pull tirá tirá tirá
135 to push spuciá rüsá rüsá
136 to throw trá bötá viá bütá vía, trá vía
137 to tie ligá tacá tacá
138 to sew cùzer cüsì cüsì
139 to count cöntá cüntá cüntá
140 to say
141 to sing cantá cantá cantá
142 to play züga zögá gjügá
143 to float stá a gàla galesá galesá
144 to flow scórer passá zó ????
145 to freeze zelá conzelá cungelá
146 to swell s·gionfá, nì 'nfjàt sgiunfá sgunfiá
147 sun sul sul suu
148 moon lüna lüna lüna
149 star stèla stèla stèla
150 water àiva aqua, èigua aqua, égua, aigua
151 rain àiva piöv piööf
152 river fjöm fiöm, fiümm, flümm, rin
153 lake lac lagh laach
154 sea (as in ocean) mar mar maar
155 salt sal sal saa
156 stone préda préda préda, pédra, préa
157 sand sàbia sàbia sàbia
158 dust pólver pólver pólvra
159 earth (as in soil) tèra tèra tèra
160 cloud nígol nìola nígula
161 fog ghèba, nèbia bórda, nèbia scighéra, nèbia
162 sky cél cél ceel
163 wind (as in breeze) vènt vènt veent
164 snow néf niv, fiòca neef, fiòca
165 ice giàs giàss gjass
166 smoke föm föm fümm
167 fire föc fögh fööch
168 ashes sèner sènder scendra
169 burn (intransitive) brüzá brüsá brüsá
170 road stràda strada strada
171 mountain mut montagna muntagna
172 red rós róss russ
173 green vért vérd veert
174 yellow zalt zald gjaalt
175 white bjanc biànch biaanch, blanch
176 black négher nìgher négar, negru
177 night nòt nòcc nott, nòit, nocc
178 day (daytime)
179 year an an an,ann
180 warm (as in weather) calt cóld coolt
181 cold (as in weather) frèt frègg frègg, frecc, freit
182 full pjé pié pien, plen
183 new nöf növ nööf
184 old vècc ègg vecc
185 good bù,buna bun, buna
186 bad catíf de catìv catiif
187 rotten (as a log) màrs mars maarsc
188 dirty spórc ??????? spórch vuunc
189 straight drit drécc drizz
190 round rotónt tép ???? ruduund
191 sharp (as a knife) gös göss güzz
192 dull (as a knife) móc móch mucch
193 smooth lis léss liss
194 wet ömet ömed ümit
195 dry (adjective) sèc sèch, söcc secch, sücc
196 right (correct) giöst giöst gjüüst
197 near derènt, vizì apröv, visì aprööf, areent, vesin
198 far delóns de luntà luntan
199 right (side) dèstra drécia drita
200 left (side) sinìstra, mansìna mansina manzina
201 at a a a
202 in en dét in in, deent in
203 with (accompanying) còn, con cun
204 and e e e
205 if se si, se
206 because perchè perchè parchè, par che
207 name nòm nòm nomm



riferimènt English Bresà
1 I
2 you (singular)
3 he
4 we nóter
5 you (plural) vóter
6 they lùr
7 this chèsto
8 that chèl
9 here ché
10 there
11 who chi
12 what chè
13 where endóe
14 when quando
15 how cóme
16 not mía
17 all töt
18 many tacc
19 some en quat
20 few póc
21 other óter
22 one giü
23 two du
24 three tré
25 four quàter
26 five sic
27 big grant
28 long lónc
29 wide larc
30 thick spès
31 heavy gréf
32 small picinì
33 short cürt
34 narrow strèt
35 thin sitìl
36 woman fómna
37 man (adult male) òm
38 man (human being) òm
39 child pipì
40 wife moér, spúza
41 husband òm
42 mother màder, máma
43 father pàder, papà, bubà
44 animal animàl
45 fish pès
46 bird ozèl
47 dog
48 louse piöcc
49 snake bis
50 worm vérem
51 tree pjànta
52 forest bósc
53 stick bastù
54 fruit fröta
55 seed somésa
56 leaf fòia
57 root raìs
58 bark scórsa
59 flower fjùr
60 grass èrba
61 rope córda
62 skin pèl
63 meat càrne
64 blood sanc
65 bone òs
66 fat (n.) gras
67 egg öf
68 horn córen
69 tail cùa
70 feather pèna
71 hair caèl
72 head
73 ear orècia
74 eye öcc
75 nose nas
76 mouth bóca
77 tooth dét
78 tongue lèngua
79 fingernail öngia
80 foot
81 leg gamba
82 knee zönöcc
83 hand
84 wing àla
85 belly pànsa
86 guts bödèle
87 neck còl
88 back schéna
89 breast stòmec
90 heart cör
91 liver figàt
92 drink béer
93 eat majà
94 bite pià
95 suck ciücià
96 spit spüdà
97 vomit bötà sö
98 blow sopjà
99 breathe respirà
100 laugh ríder
101 see éder
102 hear sènter
103 know saì
104 think pensà
105 smell snazà
106 fear ìga póra
107 sleep dórmer
108 live scampà, viver
109 die mörer
110 kill copà
111 fight combàter
112 hunt nà a càcia
113 hit ciapà
114 cut tajà
115 split sbregà
116 stab scortelà
117 scratch gratà
118 dig scaà
119 swim ugà
120 fly (v.) ulà
121 walk caminà
122 come vègner
123 lie bötàs zó
124 sit sentàs zó
125 stand stà 'n pé
126 turn giràs
127 fall burlà zó
128 give
129 hold tègner
130 squeeze schisà
131 rub frigà
132 wash laà
133 wipe sügà
134 pull tirà
135 push spucià
136 throw trà
137 tie ligà
138 sew cùzer
139 count cöntà
140 say
141 sing cantà
142 play züga
143 float stà a gàla
144 flow scórer
145 freeze zelà
146 swell s·gionfà, nì 'nfjàt
147 sun sul
148 moon lüna
149 star stèla
150 water àiva
151 rain àiva
152 river fjöm
153 lake lac
154 sea mar
155 salt sal
156 stone préda
157 sand sàbia
158 dust pólver
159 earth tèra
160 cloud nígol
161 fog ghèba, nèbia
162 sky ciél
163 wind vènt
164 snow néf
165 ice giàs
166 smoke föm
167 fire föc
168 ashes sèner
169 burn brüzà
170 road stràda
171 mountain mut
172 red rós
173 green vért
174 yellow zalt
175 white bjanc
176 black négher
177 night nòt
178 day
179 year an
180 warm calt
181 cold frèt
182 full pjé
183 new nöf
184 old vècc
185 good
186 bad catíf
187 rotten màrs
188 dirty spórc
189 straight drit
190 round rotónt
191 sharp gös
192 dull móc
193 smooth lis
194 wet ömet
195 dry sèc
196 correct giöst
197 near vizì
198 far delóns
199 right dèstra
200 left sinìstra, mansìna
201 at a
202 in en
203 with còn,
204 and e
205 if se
206 because perchè
207 name nòm