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de-N Dieser Benutzer spricht Deutsch als Muttersprache.
en-3 This user has advanced knowledge of English.
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Some links[edit]





See also: Dr. L. Kip Wheeler's Formality Scale

Formality scale
Very formal, Frozen, Rigid ← FORMAL      Neutral      INFORMAL → Very informal, Casual, Familiar
This diagram is from Quirk et al. (1985), who use the term attitude rather than style or register


Denotes spoken or written words that are used primarily in a familiar, or casual, context, where a clear, formal equivalent often exists that is employed in its place in formal contexts. Compare similar tag colloquial.


Describes a context where word choice and syntax are primarily limited to those terms and constructions that are accepted by academia or official institutions as most appropriate and correct.


Actuality scale
obsolete ← archaic ← dated ← NEUTRAL
This diagram was pulled out of thin air by me :)


Still in use, but generally only by older people, and considered unfashionable or superseded, particularly by younger people. Examples: wireless (in sense "broadcast radio tuner"), groovy, gramophone, gay (in the senses of "bright", "happy", etc.)

Please keep in mind that what may be considered "unfashionable" or "dated" in one region may not be in another, so when in doubt, make a Usage Note stating that the term may be considered unfashionable or dated in some areas.


No longer in general use, but still found in some contemporary texts (eg, the Bible). Examples: thou (singular second-person subject; "you"), œconomy Generally understood by educated people, but rarely used in current texts or speech.


No longer in use; found only in very old texts. Examples: zyxt Virtually no one would currently use the word or meaning, and very, very few would understand the word or meaning if it was used in speech or text.



  • süddeutsch
  • norddeutsch
  • rhinelandic
  • austrian
  • southeastgerman (of Germany, that is)
  • GDR-german (both a time- and geographical restriction)
  • Ex-GDR-german (both a time- and geographical restriction)
  • ruhrdeutsch


Spelling Reforms[edit]




Denotes words or expressions that likely arose via casual conversational language, and are likely to be used primarily in casual conversation rather than in more formal written works, speeches, and discourse. Compare similar tag informal.


Not literal. Of words in metaphorical usage, such as 'pig' of a greedy person, or metonymic, as 'crown' to mean the monarchy.


Language considered distasteful or obscene.


Denotes language that is unique to a particular profession or subject, i.e. jargon. Also refers to the specialized language of a social group, sometimes used to make what is said unintelligible to those who are not members of the group, i.e. cant. Such language is usually outside of conventional usage, and is mostly inappropriate in formal contexts.


Language of a social group, sometimes used to make what is said unintelligible to those who are not members of the group. Such language is usually outside of conventional usage, and is mostly inappropriate in formal contexts.


Language of a place, or local group of people. It is often of an origin deep in history, and usually spoken only in a limited geographical area, such as a village, town, valley, or city. Often hard to understand, or unintelligible for foreigners, or distant foreigners. Often depending on a Dachsprache for neologisms. Use in formal contexts varies widely from absolutely not accepted in some places over permissible in local contexts and events, and unrestricted use, to uses with some pride in other places.




Denotes spoken or written words that are less vulgar or less offensive than the ones it replaces. (Is it the opposite of pejorative or offensive? I'd say it's the opposite of offensive.)




Denotes a word standardly used to replace a taboo word.



This is a subject list I found on the web ( and it might be useful as a start to work with. Some of these subject probably can be classes, like TM, Disney, weapons etc., and some can be deleted.

  • acc. Accounting / Buchführung
  • admin. Administration / Verwaltung
  • advert. Advertising Language / Werbesprache
  • agr. Agriculture / Agrarwirtschaft (Landwirtschaft)
  • anat. Anatomy / Anatomie
  • archaeo. Archaeology / Archäologie
  • archi. Architecture / Architektur
  • armour Armour / Rüstungen
  • art Art / Kunst
  • astron. Astronomy / Astronomie
  • astronau astronautics / Astronautik, Raumfahrt
  • audio Audiology / Hörgeräte, Akustik
  • automot. Automotive Engineering / Automobiltechnik
  • aviat. Aviation / Luftfahrt
  • bibl. Biblical / biblisch
  • bike Bicycle / Fahrrad
  • biochem. Biochemistry / Biochemie
  • biol. - DefinedMeaning:biology (384) biology / Biologie
  • biotech. Biotechnology / Biotechnologie
  • bot. Botany, Plants / Botanik, Pflanzen
  • brew Brewing / Bierbrauen
  • chem. Chemistry / Chemie
  • climbing Climbing, Mountaineering / Bergsteigerei
  • clo. Clothing / Kleidung
  • comm. DefinedMeaning:trade (economic) (3812) Commerce / Handel
  • comp. Computer / Informatik
  • constr. Construction / Bauwesen
  • cos. Cosmetics / Kosmetikprodukte
  • cryst. Crystallography / Kristallographie
  • curr. Currencies / Währungen
  • cuss Cuss / Schimpfwort
  • dance Dance / Tanz
  • dent. Dental Medicine / Zahnmedizin
  • Disney Disney Characters, Titles, Places / Disney-Bezeichnungen
  • drugs Drugs / Drogen
  • econ. Economy / Ökonomie, Ökonomik, Wirtschaft
  • educ. Education / Ausbildung
  • electr. Electrical Engin., Electronics / Elektrotechnik, Elektronik
  • engin. Engineering / Ingenieurwesen
  • entom. entomology / Entomologie, Insektenkunde
  • envir. Environment / Umwelt
  • equest. Equestrianism / Reitsport
  • ethn. Ethnology / Ethnologie
  • EU European Union / Europäische Union
  • F Fiction / Names and Titles in Literature, Film, TV, Arts
  • fashion Fashion / Mode
  • film Film / Film
  • fin. Finance / Finanzen
  • FireResc Firefighting & Rescue / Feuerwehr & Rettungsdienst
  • food Foodstuffs Industry / Lebensmittelindustrie
  • for. Forestry / Forstwissenschaft, Forstwirtschaft
  • furn. Furniture / Möbel
  • games Games / Spiele
  • gastr. Gastronomy, Cooking / Gastronomie, Kochen
  • geogr. Geography / Geografie
  • geol. Geology / Geologie
  • geom. Geometry / Geometrie
  • herald. Heraldry / Heraldik
  • hist. History / Geschichte oder historische Begriffe
  • hort. Horticulture / Gartenbau
  • hunting Hunting / Jagen
  • hydro. Hydrology & Hydrogeology / Hydrologie & Hydrogeologie
  • ichthyo. ichthyology / Ichthyologie, Fischkunde
  • idiom Idioms / Redewendungen
  • ind. Industry / Industrie
  • insur. Insurance / Versicherungswesen
  • internet Internet / Messaging Slang
  • jobs jobs, job descriptions / Berufe, Berufsbezeichnungen
  • law Law / Recht, Jura
  • libr. Library Science / Bibliothekswissenschaft
  • ling. Linguistics / Sprachwissenschaft, Linguistik
  • lit. Literature / Literatur
  • market. Marketing / Vertrieb und Handelswesen
  • math. Mathematics / Mathematik
  • med. Medicine / Medizin
  • MedTechn Medical Engineering & Imaging / Medizintechnik
  • meteo. Meteorology / Meteorologie
  • mil. Military / Militär
  • min. Mineralogy / Mineralogie
  • mining Mining / Bergbau
  • motorsp. Motor Sport / Motorsport
  • MP Metal Processing / Metallverarbeitung
  • mus. Music / Musik
  • mycol. Mycology / Mykologie, Pilze
  • myth. Mythology / Mythologie
  • naut. Nautical Science / Nautik, Schifffahrtskunde
  • neol. Neologisms / Neologismen (Wortneubildungen)
  • nucl. Nuclear Engineering / Kerntechnik
  • oenol. Oenology / Önologie, Lehre vom Wein
  • onom. Onomastics / Onomastik, Namenkunde
  • orn. Ornithology / Vogelkunde
  • pharm. Pharmacy / Pharmazie
  • phil. Philosophy / Philosophie
  • philat. Philately / Briefmarkenkunde
  • phonet. phonetics / Phonetik
  • phot. Photography / Fotografie
  • phys. Physics / Physik
  • poet. Poetry / Poesie
  • pol. Politics / Politik
  • press Journalism / Journalismus
  • print Print / Druck
  • proverb Proverb / Sprichwort
  • psych. Psychology / Psychologie
  • publ. publishing / Verlagswesen
  • quote Quotation / Zitat
  • rail Rail / Eisenbahn
  • RealEst. Real Estate / Immobilien
  • relig. Religion / Religion
  • rhet. Rhetoric / Rhetorik
  • sci. Science / Wissenschaft
  • sociol. Sociology / Soziologie
  • spec. Specialized Term / Fachsprachlicher Ausdruck
  • sports Sports / Sport
  • stat. Statistics / Statistik
  • stocks Stock Exchange / Börsenwesen
  • tech. Technology, Engineering / Technik
  • telecom. Telecommunications / Telekommunikation
  • textil. Textiles / Textilien
  • theatre Theatre / Theater
  • TM Trademarks, Brand Names / Marken, Warenzeichen
  • tools Tools / Werkzeuge
  • tourist Travellers vocabulary / Reise-Wortschatz
  • toys Toys / Spielzeug
  • transp. Land Transport / Landtransport
  • travel Travel Industry / Touristik
  • TV Television and Radio / Fernsehen und Radio
  • typ. Typography / Typografie
  • unit Weights and Measures / Maße und Gewichte
  • vet. Veterinary Medicine / Tiermedizin
  • watches Watches, Clocks / Uhren
  • weapons Weapons / Waffen
  • zool. Zoology, Animals / Zoologie, Tiere


(XPOS means a relation across parts of speech)


  • Synset-membership
  • Near_synonym, e.g. machine, apparatus, tool, instrument
  • XPOS_near_synonym
    • adorn V XPOS_NEAR_SYNONYM adornment N


  • Antonym
  • Near_antonym
  • XPOS_near_antonym,
    • dead XPOS_near_antonym live


The adjective "canonical" pertains to the noun "canon".


  • Has_Hyperonym/ Has_Hyponym
  • Has_XPOS_hyperonym/ Has_XPOS_hyponym
    • arrivo HAS_XPOS_HYPERONYM andare
    • andare HAS_XPOS_HYPONYM arrivo


Has_Mero_Part/ Has_Holo_Part[edit]

a whole and its constituent parts:

  • hand Has_Mero_Part finger

Has_Mero_Member/ Has_Holo_Member[edit]

a set and its members:

  • fleet Has_Mero_Member ship

Has_Mero_Portion/ Has_Holo_Portion[edit]

a whole and a portion of it:

  • metal Has_Mero_Portion ingot

Has_Mero_Madeof/ Has_Holo_Madeof[edit]

a thing and the substance it is made-of:

  • book Has_Mero_Madeof paper

Has_Mero_Location/ Has_Holo_Location[edit]

a place and location included within it

  • desert Has_Mero_Location oasis

Has_Subevent/ Is_Subevent_of[edit]

  • 'to buy' Has_Subevent 'to pay'

Syntagmatic relations[edit]



  • watch-dog ROLE_AGENT to guard
  • teacher ROLE_AGENT to teach

Role_Patient/ Involved_Patient[edit]

  • to teach INVOLVED_PATIENT learner

Role_Instrument/ Involved_Instrument[edit]

hammer ROLE_INSTRUMENT to hammer

Role_Location/ Involved_Location[edit]

school ROLE_LOCATION to teach

Role_Direction/ Involved_Direction[edit]

Role_Source_Direction/ Involved_Source_Direction[edit]

to emigrate INVOLVED_SOURCE_DIRECTION one's country

Role_Target_Direction/ Involved_Target_Direction[edit]

rincasare(to go back home) INVOLVED_TARGET_DIRECTION casa (home)

Be_In_State/ State_of[edit]

'the poor' are 'poor' (noun @ adjective)


'to kill' Causes 'to die'


'to snore' Entails 'to sleep'


Every DM is either a class (collection) or an instance (individual) (Though I guess this is only true for nouns).


  • Every instance is an instance of a class.
    • Example: Glenn Gould is an instance of the class Pianist
    • Example: Germany and France are instances of the class country.
  • Every class can be an instance of several other classes.
    • Example: Pianist is an instance of profession.
  • Every class can be a subclass of other classes.
    • Example: Pianist is a subclass of Musician.
    • Example: Musician is a subclass of Artist.
    • Example: Artist is a subclass of Person.


  • Classes can have predicates and they automatically inherit these predicates to their subclasses and instances.
    • Example:

There are two different types of hypernymy:

  • is_a_type_of/has_subtype (this is what we call class right now: is_a_subclass_of/has_subclass)
    • Artist is_a_type_of Person / Person has_subtype_Artist
    • Musician is_a_type_of Artist / Artist has_subtype Musician
    • Pianist is_a_type_of Musician / Musician has_subtype Pianist
  • is_an_instance_of/has_instance
    • Glenn Gould is_an_instance_of Pianist
      • From this it's possible to automatically infer: Glenn Gould is_an_instance of Person (or in natural language: Glenn Gould is a Person.
    • Germany is_an_instance_of Country

And then there are several types of meronymy:

  • has_part / is_part_of
    • Country has_part City / City is_part_of Country
    • Continent has_part Country / Country is_part_of

If these (and probably some other) relations are implemented properly, it is possible to infere that Glen Gould has a thumb, five fingers, sleeps, might snore etc. without stating it explicitly...